homepagelexiconCyber-Physical Systems (CPS)

Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS)


Cyber-physical systems (CPS) are integrated networks of computer-aided components that interact directly with physical processes. They use sensors and actuators to collect and react to data from the physical world. The combination of computer and software technologies with network and physical processes enables CPS to react autonomously and in real time to environmental changes.


The development of Cyber-Physical Systems began with the advancement of embedded systems and Internet of Things (IoT), which formed the basis for networking physical and digital components. The growing performance of microprocessor technology and advances in communications technology have promoted the rapid development of CPS. They are an evolution of traditional embedded systems, but offer additional functionalities through their network capabilities and the processing of large amounts of data.

Areas of application

Cyber-physical systems are used in various industrial sectors, including manufacturing, automotive, energy supply, and healthcare. In the manufacturing industry, for example, they enable processes to be automated by precisely controlling the machines via an online portal, which provides real-time data and enables analyses for improved operational decisions.


The main benefits of cyber-physical systems lie in their ability to increase efficiency and productivity through automation and improved data analysis. They enable greater precision in process control and better adaptability to changes, resulting in lower operating expenses and increased competitiveness.


The challenges of using cyber-physical systems include ensuring cybersecurity and protecting privacy. Because these systems often control critical infrastructure, security breaches can have serious consequences. Solutions include advanced security protocols, regular updates, and training employees to use these technologies.


A specific example of the use of cyber-physical systems in industry is the smart grid in energy supply. Smart grids use CPS to efficiently manage energy flow and respond to changes in energy production and demand in real time. Another example is autonomous driving in the automotive industry, where CPS takes over vehicle control to increase traffic safety and efficiency.


Cyber-physical systems are revolutionizing numerous industrial sectors through their ability to integrate physical and digital components and offer intelligent, automated solutions. They are crucial for the future of automation and offer significant benefits, but also pose challenges in terms of security and data protection.